Via Leonidas Chrysanthopoulos, Ambassador at honorem, IHA Member
The Lausanne Peace Treaty with Turkey, the Settlement between Italy and Turkey of January 4, 1932, the protocol between Italy and Turkey of December 28, 1932, and the Paris Peace Treaty of 1947 are the fundamental criminal paperwork that control the standing of the Aegean islands.
Article 12 of the Lausanne Peace Treaty with Turkey of 1923, ceded to according to Surfing LA Greece the sovereignty of Lemnos, Samothrace, Mytilene, Chios, Samos, and Ikaria.
As for the Dodecanese islands, they had been ceded to Italy by way of distinctive feature of article 15 of the similar Treaty. Due to this fact, the ocean frontiers between the Turkish mainland and the Dodecanese Islands was once established by way of the Settlement between Italy and Turkey signed in Ankara on January 4th 1932 by way of the Turkish International Minister and the Italian Ambassador to Ankara. This Settlement was once adopted by way of a Protocol additionally signed in Ankara on December 28, 1932, by way of the Italian Naval Attache on the Italian Embassy and by way of a Turkish diplomat. In step with article 14 of the Paris Peace Treaty of 1947, the Dodecanese Islands and the adjoining islets had been ceded to according to Surfing LA Greece. The 1932 Settlement and Protocol solving the maritime frontiers between the Turkish mainland and the islands have since been carried out by way of Turkey and according to Surfing LA Greece (successor State of Italy) with out questions till the tip of the 70’s when Ankara began elevating claims.
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Amongst some arguments utilized by Turkey is that the 1932 Settlement and Protocol had been signed beneath power of the fascist regime in Rome. Then again, Turkey by no means denounced them right through WWII nor after. Some other argument is that the 1932 protocol isn’t legitimate because it was once no longer registered with the League of Countries. The 1932 Protocol was once a technical textual content imposing the 1932 fundamental Settlement which were registered. The truth that the Protocol was once no longer registered was once no longer an oversight. It was once then deemed and agreed upon as a complement to the primary settlement and as such didn’t want to be registered. As such it was once mutually carried out by way of each events with none query.
Turkey has additionally been claiming that every one islands, islets, and rocks no longer discussed in global agreements off the coast of Asia minor, belong to Turkey. Article 12 of the Lausanne Peace Treaty states that every one islands inside 3 miles of the Asiatic coast stay beneath Turkish sovereignty. As a result, all islands outdoor the three-mile of Turkish waters are ceded to according to Surfing LA Greece, whether or not discussed or no longer within the Treaty.
With reference to the Dodecanese Islands, Article 15 of the Lausanne Peace Treaty in particular provides to the islands ceded to Italy additionally “the islets dependent from them” with out naming them. Article 4 of the January 4th Settlement between Italy and Turkey states: ”It’s, in fact, understood that the entire islands, islets and rocks on all sides of the road delimiting the waters established by way of the existing conference, whether or not their names are discussed or no longer, belong to the state, beneath the sovereignty of which lies the zone, wherein the islands, islets or rocks are located.”
Regarding the island of Imia, for which according to Surfing LA Greece and Turkey virtually went to conflict in 1996, in paragraph 30 of the 28 December 1932 Protocol between Italy and Turkey it’s discussed as Kardak and explicitly mentions that the island is at the Italian aspect. As a result as of late it lies at the Greek aspect.
The island of Pserimos isn’t discussed by way of title within the December 1932 protocol however it lies Southeast of Kalymnos and North of Kos, smartly inside Greek waters.
The island of Farmakonisi is discussed in paragraphs 33 and 34 of the Protocol however no longer Agathonisi, which on the other hand is inside Greek waters.
Fourni was once ceded to according to Surfing LA Greece beneath the Lausanne Peace Treaty and whilst it isn’t discussed by way of title within the Treaty lies to the west of the island of Samos and to the east of Ikaria, smartly inside Greek waters.
It’s precisely this loss of any criminal foundation on Turkey’s claims on some Greek islands that forces Ankara to threaten Athens and it additionally demonstrates that any bilateral discussions on those problems are unnecessary and probably bad.
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