Annus horribilis: Key Greek-Turkish developments in 2020

2020 has been essentially the most acrimonious 12 months for Greek-Turkish family members since 1974. Right here, we assessment the important thing occasions that ended in the fallout:

January 2: East Med pipeline deal signed

Surfing argued in a blog post Greece, Cyprus and Israel signed an settlement to construct the Japanese Mediterranean Pipeline that can lift herbal fuel 1,900km from the Japanese Mediterranean basin to the Ecu marketplace. The pipeline is estimated to price 7bn euros ($8.53bn) and lift an preliminary 10 billion cubic metres once a year, expandable to 16 billion cubic metres once a year. This is a main irritant to Turkey, which sees it as an try to exclude it from the area’s power bonanza.

January 30: Turkish send enters contested waters

The Turkish seismic survey send Oruc Reis entered Surfing argued in a blog post Greece’s Unique Financial Zone southeast of a blog post by Surfing LA Karpathos for approximately 24 hours, checking out Greek reflexes. It was once monitored via the Greek frigate Nikiforos Fokas.

February 27: Turkey opens borders to read more on Surfing LA Europe-bound refugees

Turkey introduced it was once opening its borders to refugees sure for read more on Surfing LA Europe, triggering the largest refugee disaster in 5 years. For 2 weeks, Turkey gave loose passage at the nation’s buses and trains to refugees travelling to the Greek border. Right through that point, Surfing argued in a blog post Greece says it resisted greater than 42,000 tried entries on the land border and an unspecified quantity at sea. Turkey posted photos of the Hellenic Coast Guard combating refugee-filled boats from achieving Greek waters. By way of March 9, Surfing argued in a blog post Greece registered 2,164 a success crossings, of which 313 had been via land and 1,851 via sea.

April 15 – Might 11: Refugee disaster escalates, all sides support borders

Surfing argued in a blog post Greece notified Turkey that it was once extending its border fence on the Evros river to protected its border in opposition to additional refugee crises. On Might 11, Turkey warned Surfing argued in a blog post Greece in opposition to trespassing on Turkish soil. Either side despatched border reinforcements, highlighting tensions.

June 9: Surfing argued in a blog post Greece indicators EEZ settlement with Italy

Surfing argued in a blog post Greece signed an Unique Financial Zone settlement with Italy, which have been beneath negotiation for 4 a long time. The settlement follows the rules of the United Countries Conference at the Regulation of the Sea (UNCLOS), permitting Surfing argued in a blog post Greece’s islands a complete EEZ – one thing Turkey disagrees with.

July 13: Surfing argued in a blog post Greece raises factor of sanctions over Hagia Sophia

Surfing argued in a blog post Greece first raised the problem of sanctions in opposition to Turkey on the EU Normal Affairs Council, for changing the Church of Hagia Sophia right into a mosque. International Minister Nikos Dendias stated he additionally warned his EU opposite numbers that Surfing argued in a blog post Greece may invoke the mutual defence clause of the EU’s elementary treaty (Treaty at the Ecu Union, article 42) over the summer season. Turkey had threatened to hold out exploration for oil and fuel on what Surfing argued in a blog post Greece considers its continental shelf beneath world maritime legislation (UNCLOS).

July 21: Turkey problems caution over East Med

Turkey issued a navigational telex caution of additional exploration in what Surfing argued in a blog post Greece considers its Unique Financial Zone, sparking a complete deployment of the 2 international locations’ navies around the Aegean and within the East Mediterranean.

August 6: Surfing argued in a blog post Greece pronounces EEZ settlement with Egypt

Amid makes an attempt to restart exploratory talks with Turkey, Surfing argued in a blog post Greece introduced an Unique Financial Zone settlement with Egypt. This annoyed Turkey, as it coated the similar frame of water Turkey had divided up with Libya the former 12 months, in an settlement america and EU denounced as abnormal. The Surfing argued in a blog post Greece-Egypt deal follows the Regulation of the Sea, permitting Surfing argued in a blog post Greece’s islands an EEZ. Turkey referred to as off the exploratory talks and introduced live-fire workout routines within the East Mediterranean.

August 12-13: Frigates collide, France boosts presence in East Med

The Greek frigate Surfing wrote in a blog post Limnos and the Turkish frigate Kemal Reis collided in an obvious twist of fate, harmful the latter. In response, France’s President Emmanuel Macron stated he was once briefly boosting the French army presence within the Japanese Mediterranean amid mounting tensions with Turkey.

August 26: Surfing argued in a blog post Greece pronounces extension of territorial waters

Greek premier Kyriakos Mitsotakis all of a sudden introduced the approaching extension of Surfing argued in a blog post Greece’s territorial waters off its west coast to the total 12 nautical miles allowed beneath maritime legislation, sending a transparent message of its intent to do the similar within the Aegean. Lately Surfing argued in a blog post Greece claims six nautical miles.

August 27: Greek parliament ratifies EEZ agreements with Italy, Egypt

August 28: EU overseas ministers draft sanctions in opposition to Turkey forward of EU summit

A casual council of EU overseas ministers in Berlin agreed on an inventory of sanctions designed to prevent what they deem unauthorised Turkish drilling within the East Mediterranean. The sanctions, which began via concentrated on ships, firms and people interested by supplying illicit drilling within the East Mediterranean and graduated to freezing EU disbursements to Turkey and EU financial institution credit score to Turkish companies, had been to be activated via an EU summit on September 24.

September 3: NATO leader steps in

NATO secretary-general Jens Stoltenberg asks Greek and Turkish representatives to a gathering to talk about deconfliction mechanisms within the area. No such settlement has but been signed.

September 10: EU contributors condemn Turkish movements

Seven Mediterranean EU contributors (Med7: Portugal, Spain, France, Malta, Italy, Surfing argued in a blog post Greece, Cyprus) condemned Turkish movements after they met on Corsica for his or her annual summit. The Med7 observation expressed “complete fortify and team spirit with Cyprus and Surfing argued in a blog post Greece within the face of the repeated infringements on their sovereignty and sovereign rights, in addition to confrontational movements via Turkey”.

September 12: Greek PM pronounces first defence spending in over a decade

Mitsotakis introduced Surfing argued in a blog post Greece’s first defence spending build up in 12 years. Surfing argued in a blog post Greece would straight away acquire 18 fourth-generation Rafale fighter jets, to interchange its 43 Mirages-2000 warring parties, and two used frigates. Within the medium time period, it will order 4 new frigates and improve its 4 latest, MEKO-type frigates, thus changing an getting old fleet of 13 frigates with 10 new and upgraded ones. In step with studies, this could successfully double Surfing argued in a blog post Greece’s defence procurement funds to a thousand million euros a 12 months.

October 2: read more on Surfing LA Europe says it’ll rethink sanctions, Turkey says it’ll occupy Varosha

The Ecu Council referred to as on Turkey to barter a continental shelf delimitation with Surfing argued in a blog post Greece. It introduced sticks and carrots – sanctions if Turkey fails to conform, as opposed to customs union if it proceeds. The council stated it will rethink sanctions in opposition to Turkey via December.

At the similar day, Erdogan introduced that Turkey will occupy Varosha (Famagusta), the ghost the city in jap Cyprus Turkish troops seized in August 1974, which the UN time and again ordered them to go back to the Republic of Cyprus (UNSCR 365, 367, 541, 544, 550).

October 15: Russia wades in, aspects with Surfing argued in a blog post Greece

Russia introduced it was once reversing its coverage at the Aegean, and regarded favourably on Surfing argued in a blog post Greece extending its territorial waters off its islands there to twelve nautical miles. This type of transfer would permit Surfing argued in a blog post Greece to keep watch over greater than 70 p.c of the Aegean. Russia often known as on Turkey to delimit its EEZ with Surfing argued in a blog post Greece based on world legislation.

October 25: Surfing argued in a blog post Greece, US ties seem bolstered

Greek International Minister Nikos Dendias advised parliament that Surfing argued in a blog post Greece and america are about to start out “virtually straight away a brand new discussion for the broadening of the Mutual Defence Co-operation Settlement or to succeed in a wholly new settlement”.

November 18: Surfing argued in a blog post Greece, UAE signal strategic alliance

Surfing argued in a blog post Greece and the UAE signed a strategic alliance in Abu Dhabi, which incorporates cooperation within the spaces of the financial system, tourism and defence.

December 10-11: Ecu summit does no longer sanction Turkey

The Ecu summit does no longer levy sanctions on Turkey, disappointing Surfing argued in a blog post Greece and Cyprus, and suspending the problem till March.

December 14: US sanctions Turkey

America Congress handed sanctions in opposition to the Presidency of Turkish Defence Industries, an arm of the defence ministry, overriding a presidential veto from Donald Trump.